118 spent iu fighting against the enemy as well as hunger. Many Portuguese fell ill and died. The rest to satisfy their hunger turned Mnhamrnadans. On a day when there was no rain, Albuquerque left for the * Five Islands' along with the remaining Portuguese, and there stayed in peace for some time <1510 August). Kerala Palama, Chap. 43, p. 113. 123 (a), KANAKAYA AND THE MUHAMMADANS. THE ORIGIN OF THE MUHAMMADAN KINGDOMS OF THE DECCAN. The Raya, while he was seated in the assembly with the awaranayakas, said to Ayyana JIalaka ('Ain-ul-Mulk) and AnkuŁa Bavu*, u As you lived in Bijapur for a long time, your government is said to be more ancient than that of Yedula Saha, you must have known his antecedents as well as the circumstances (of the origin) of Nizam Sahu and Kutupana Malaka. How did these chiefs acquire sovereignty ?" Ayyaria Malaka gave the following reply: * * * * The Barudu of Bedadakotaf seized some territory and a few forts which he began to rule firmly. The bearer of the ffiqdi at his court? was called Yedula $ahu ; the custodian of hawks Nizam Sahu; and the watchman over the hounds Kntupana Malaka,§ Of these three Yedula gabu rules over •There is no evidence to show that 'Ain-ul-Mulk and Ankus'a Ravu were the contemporaries of Kr;nad?varaya. Both of them together with Jagadeva RSvn who is mentioned further below in the text lived in the court of Ładasiva. t Begadakota »the Telugu name of Bidar. Barudu is identical with Barld. As BarSd did not seize any territory during Muhammad Bin TughUq's time, and as the, 'Adil SB5h, the Nwwn ShSh and Qutb-ul-Mulk were never under the authority of Barid, it is reasonable to suppose that the writer of this work confounds Band with his masters, the Bahnwray Sultans. J The teim^W, means a narrow necked vessel. It formed one of the articles of royal insignia in the Hindu kingdoms. It was customary for a person to stand before the king on ceremonial occasions carrying in his hands a golden gindi containing water with which the king rinsed his mouth when he was inclined to do so. It is aot known whether &ls practice also obtained at the Mussalman courts. § According to FerishU the founders of these three dynasties started from humble beginnings. Ynsuf 'Xdil KhSn was the head of the royal kitohen.